Optimal decision-making for online and offline retailers under BOPS mode

Xingran Chen, Yongmei Liu, Zhong Wan


As a new business form, the buy-online and pick-up-in-store (BOPS) mode allows consumers to pay for goods online and pick them up in a physical store. In this paper, an equilibrium model is constructed to formulate an optimal decision-making problem for online and offline retailers under the BOPS mode, where the online retailer determines the retail price of the goods and the consignment quantity in a physical store, while the offline retailer chooses the revenue share of profit by a consignment contract. Different to the existing models, the cost of overstocking and loss of understocking are incorporated into the profit function of the online retailer due to the randomness of demand. For the objective function of the offline retailer, the cross-sale quantity generated by the BOPS mode is taken into account. Then the game between the online and offline retailers is expressed as a stochastic Nash equilibrium model. Based on the analytic properties of the model, necessary conditions for the equilibrium solution are obtained. A case study and sensitivity analysis are employed to reveal the managerial implications of the model, which can provide a number of valuable suggestions on optimizing the strategies for the online and offline retailers under the BOPS mode.



BOPS, optimization model, Nash game, stochastic optimization

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21914/anziamj.v58i0.10329

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ANZIAM Journal, ISSN 1446-8735, copyright Australian Mathematical Society.