Natural convection in a sidewall heated cube using an immersed boundary method

Karl Albert Dittko, Michael Kirkpatrick, Steven Armfield


Numerical simulation of a square cavity was conducted to validate an implementation of an Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). The cavity consists of two differentially heated side walls and adiabatic top and bottom walls. A Cartesian grid is used with a finite volume, fractional step pressure correction method. Simulations use Dirichlet boundaries for vertical walls and Neumann boundaries for horizontal walls. The Immersed Boundary Method involves modifying the Navier--Stokes equations to include a forcing function in the momentum and energy equations that creates a virtual boundary. This method is useful because the boundary does not necessarily have to coincide with grid points; however, it is much less computationally expensive than other similar methods such as the cut cell method. The IBM is commonly used in simulations involving complex objects and can also accommodate moving boundaries. A standard numerical simulation with grid aligned with the boundary is first compared with previous results. The same geometry is then simulated by tilting the grid at various angles and using the IBM for each of the walls, and comparing these results with those initially obtained. We detail the implementation method and common problems associated with this. Velocity and temperature profiles are presented and the IBM is shown to maintain second order spatial accuracy.

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Immersed Boundary Method; Natural Convection

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